Laevatein - The magic-wand Laevatein was forged by Loki and is kept by Sinmara in a bowl made of tough iron that has nine locks. Laevatein means "Lie Stick" or "Wand of Destruction". At Ragnarok Loki intends to use it to kill the cock Vithofnir to prevent it from crowing and warning of their approach into battle. To possess the shining feather found in front of Vithofnir's gaze is the only bribe Sinmara would take to give up this weapon. Laevatein is also used as a kenning for "sword".

Laga - In Norse mythology, Laga is the goddess of wells and springs. She is a friend of Odin.

Land of Morning - The light to the east of Jormungrund.

Laufey - Mother of Loki.

Leikin - Also called Hela or Hel.

Leirbrimir - A Clay-Giant.

Lidskjalv - Odin's high seat in Valhalla. from which he has a grand view of all the worlds. Freyr was sitting on the high seat when he discovered Gerd, with whom he fell in love.

Lif ("life") & Leifthrasir ("eager for life"), Liv & Livtrase - Two human survivors of Ragnarok who will repopulate world. Mimir had already seen the future of Ragnarok, and read the signs, which proved that a terrible fate was in store for the world. He did not want the clan of Men descended from Askur and Embla to become irretrievably spoilt from distress and sin, so he sought out two children, pure and unspoiled, in order to preserve them. In Midgard he found Lif and Leifthrasir, and ordered his sons to build for them a magnificent palace in the land of morning-light to the east of Jormungrund, a palace called Breidablik surrounded by the greenest of woods. The palace was also built for Baldur, whose fate Mimir had also foreseen. They hid themselves in Hodmimir's Forest, the forest that the flaming sword of the fire-giant Surt cannot destroy. There they sleep through the destruction of the earth and when they awaken, they will find the earth is green and verdant again. Lif and Liftrasir will become the progenitors of a new race of humans, and their descendants will inhabit this world.

Lich, Lik, Lyke - The physical body. See also Hamr.

Lina - Flax, fertility, the sacred plant of the goddess Frigg.

Lit - Lit is a small Dwarf who was running around as Balder's funeral boat was being pushed in the sea. Thor was in a bad mood so when Lit got in the way, Thor kicked the Dwarf into the fire.

Ljřsalfar - The Light Elves are wights of light, air and thought who dwell in the upper reaches of Midgardhr's atmosphere, which is ruled by Freyr. They are often, though not always, personified as feminine, in contrast to the Svartalfar, who are almost always masculine. The Ljřsalfar are the keepers and teachers of wisdom and they are the source of earthly inspiration.

Ljóssalfheimr - .Home of the Light Elves.

Loddfafnir - The wandering skald who recites the Runatál, the verses which he claims to have received from Odin.

Lodur - One of the first three gods beside his brothers Odin and Honir. When Odin created the second race of humans from an ash and elm tree, Lodur was the one who gave them the power of speech and senses. He is identified with Vé by some and Loki by others.

Loeding, Leyding - Loding is the second strong chain the Gods used to tie up the Fenrir wolf. The first chain was Dromi, and the third, that worked, was Gleipnir. All three chains were forged by the Dwarves.

Lofar - the descendants of which were: Draupnir and Dólgthrasir, Hár, Haugspori, Hlévangur, Glói, Dori, Ori, Dufur, Andvari, Skirfir, Virfir, Skáfidur, Ái, Álf and Yngvi, Eikinskjaldi, Fjalar and Frosti, Finn and Ginnar:

Lofn - Goddess of forbidden love, and of passionate and illicit love affairs, an attendant to Frigga. Her duty was to remove all obstacles from the path of lovers. Her name means "Praise" or "Love".

Logi, Loge - ("Flame") A Fire-Giant who served Utgardh-Loki. He competed and won against Loki in eating the most meat. It was a trick. Logi is actually "flame", which burns more quickly than one can eat. Logi's father is Mistblindi and Aegir is his brother.

Loki, Loki Laufeyiarson - Loki is one of the major deities in the Norse pantheon. He is a son of the giant Farbauti ("cruel striker") and the giantess Laufey. Loki is a giant by blood but associates closely with the Aesir, becoming the blood-brother of Odin. He is regarded as one of Aesir, but is on occasion their enemy. Pleasing and handsome, evil in character, capricious in behavior, cunning, he is known as the Trickster God, called "Father of Lies", Shape-changer, Sky-Traveler. Originally, he was the God of Fire. He has fiery red hair and is extremely funny and witty. He would do anything to make people laugh. Eventually, his pranks devolved into practical jokes with a streak of viciousness. He can assume many different shapes (horse, falcon, fly). The ambivalent god grows progressively more unpleasent, and is directly responsible for the death of Balder, the god of light. In the earlier part of the myths, Loki is mischievous but generally harmless. His acts involved luring Idun to be kidnapped by the giant Thiazi, cutting off Sif's hair and stealing Freya's Brisingamen. He soon became increasingly evil and even plotted the death of the most innocent and beloved of gods, Balder. The saga Lokasenna also details how Loki taunts the gods and goddesses at Aegir's feast, calling the gods weaklings and the goddesses whores.

Loki ("Fire") first married Glut ("Glow"), who bore him two daughters, Eisa ("Embers") and Einmyria ("Ashes"). Loki's mistress is the giantess Angrboda, and with her he is the father of Jormungand, Fenrir and Hel. Loki also bore (as a female) Sleipnir, the eight legged horse, after a mating with a Giant stallion called Svadilfari. His wife is Sigyn, with whom he had sons Vali and Narfi, stayed loyal to him, even when the gods punished him for the death of Balder. Loki admitted to Frigg that it was his fault Balder was killed and could not return from Hel . The Ćsir pursued him, so he ran away and hid in a mountain cabin with four doors so that he could see out of it in all directions. Often during the day, he changed himself into a salmon to hide in the waterfall of Fránang. While sitting indoors over a fire one day, Loki took linen twine and invented the fishing net. Odin saw him from Hlidskjálf. Throwing the net on to the fire, Loki jumped up and out into the river. When the Ćsir arrived, Kvasir saw the ashes and understood it was made for catching fish. The Aesir made a net and tried to catch him with it. Loki leaped away but was caught by the tail by Thor. Loki was captured and put into a cave. Taking three flat stones, the gods set them up on end and bored a hole through each. Then Loki's sons, Vali and Narfi, were captured. The Ćsir changed Vali into a wolf and he tore apart his brother Narfi. The Ćsir took Narfi's entrails and with them bound Loki over the edges of the three stones - one under his shoulder, the second under his loins, the third under his knee-joints - and these bonds became iron. Then Skadi took a poisonous snake and fastened it up over him so that the venom from it should drop on to his face. His wife Sigyn, however, sits by him holding a basin under the poison drops. When the basin becomes full she goes away to empty it, but in the meantime the venom drips on to his face and then he shudders so violently that the whole earth shakes causing earthquakes. There he will lie in bonds until Ragnarök. All his fetters will break at Ragnarok. Then Loki and all the Frost Giants and the whole family of Hel will board the boat Nagifar and join the Sons of Muspell to battle the Ćsir.

At Ragnarok, Loki will battle Heimdall and the two will slay each other. Loki is often called the Sly One, the Trickster, the Shape Changer, and the Sky Traveler.

According to Georges Dumézil, Loki shows a great resemblance with Syrdon, a demonic creature from Caucasian legends.

Long-Beard - By-name of Odin.

Lopt - Another name for Loki.

Lovar - Race of Dwarves from Svarin's grave-mound to Aurvangar in Jöruvellir.

Lyfja - Mountain on which Mengloth's hall, Lyr, is found, called the "Mountain of Healing".

Lyngvi Island - Fenrir is bound on this island on Armsvartnir Lake.

Lyr - Mengloth's hall, built on Lyfja, the "Mountain of Healing".It is protected by a moat of "flickering flame". It has a golden floor built by the Dwarves.

M

Magni - ("The Powerful") and Modi - Magni and Modi, the sons of Thor by the giantess Jarnsaxa, did not have many worshippers, as was common for sons and daughters of the major gods and goddesses. They did have a few, though, for the following reasons: Magni was considered the god of might, or strength, and was believed to be the only being in the Norse universe stronger than his father. His worshippers praised great strength and feats thereof. Magni was supposedly the only one besides Thor able to lift Mjollnir. Modi was the god of battle wrath. His worshippers were the archetypal berserks, some relying on drugs of various kinds to enhance their wrath and stifle fear. It is believed that some of his followers also worshipped Sif for her skill in battle. Magni kills Nidhogg in Ragnarok which he survives with his brother Modi. The brothers inherit Mjollnir.

Mana - The Finnish Death Goddess of the Kalevala. Her realm is called Manala.

Mani - The god of the moon. In one of those earliest days of life, there existed a giant called Mundilfari who married the giantess Glaur. They had two children who were so beautiful that they gave the children the names of Mani(moon) and Sol(sun). This act, considered blasphemous during those days, angered the gods who took away the children and placed them in the skies. Mani and Sol ride in magical chariots across the skies; while Sol's chariot pulls the sun, at night Mani’s chariot pulls the sun through the sky, and determines its waxing and waning. Mani is chased by the wolf Hati ("hate"). Whenever the wolf managed to catch the moon, a lunar eclipse would take place. This caused great consternation, and by making a lot of noise people tried to scare the wolf away.

A man named Vidfinn had two children named Hjuki and Bil. He sent them to the well Byrgir to fetch a cask of water. When Mani saw the two children he took them away with him to the moon. The two children, together with their cask and pole, can be seen on the face of the moon (the moon spots).

This myth is said to be the origin of the nursery rhyme about Jack and Jill.

Manegarm, Moongarm - The most mighty wolf ever bred, Manegarm chases the Moon every night. In the battle of Ragnarok he finally catches the Moon. He eats corpses and spatter heavens with lifeblood. Manegarm was given birth by a Giantess in the Ironforest.

Manheimur - The name of the land where the Aesir settled during their absence from Asgard during the war with the Vanir.

Mardoll - ("Shining over the Sea") An aspect of Freya.

Mead - A type of ale brewed from honey and water and thought to be the nectar of the gods. Mead is the drink which made the Germanic tribes fierce...and also extremely inebriated. It is the celebrated drink of Beowulf, made from fermented honey. Apparently when put in a horn (the preferred Germanic drinking vessel), it left a residue at the tip of the horn which turned into ergot, a hallucinogenic by-product, which probably explains their fanaticism in battle.

Mead of Poetry - The Mead of Poetry is a very special mead which makes the drinker a poet. The mead was made of Kvćsir's blood mixed with honey by Fjalar and Galar.

Medu - ON: Mead, inspiration, transformation.

Meile - (Mile Stepper") Meile is Thor's relatively unknown brother.

Mell - A sacred hammer.

Mengingjord, Megingjardar - ("Strength Increaser") Thor's strength belt. With it wrapped around his stomach Thor becomes twice as strong and twice as angry.

Menglad - Widely regarded as a beautiful giantess. However, some sources have hinted that Menglad is actually Freya and that Svipdag (the human who tried to win Menglad's heart) is actually Odr. The tale of Menglad and Svipdag is also mentioned among the many sagas. It is known that Menglad lives in Gastropnir.

Mengloth - The bride of Svipdag who lives on the Lyfja mountain in Lyr hall. Svipdag had to take a perilous journey to marry her.

Menja - Jotun-Giantess, sister of Fenja, the two women responsible for turning King Frodes giant mill, Grotte.

Mermaids - The mermaids appear in Norse lore as well, and lure unsuspecting seafarers off-course with their beautiful song. Aegir and Ran's nine wave-daughters are undines or mermaids.

Middle-Garth - (ON Midgardhr): the world of humankind.

Midgard, Midgardhr - In Norse myth, the defensive fortress which the gods build about the middle portion of the earth allotted to men in order to protect mankind from the giants. Midgard ("middle world") is on the same level as Nidavellir (land of the dwarfs), Svartalfheim (land of the dark elves/dwarfs) and Jotunheim (the land of the giants).

This is the realm of man as we know it. In Midgard lies the rainbow bridge Bifrost. This wondrous bridge reaches all the way up to Asgard.

Midgard Serpent - The monstrous serpent that encircles the earth, according to Norse/Teutonic mythology. See: Jormungand.

Midgardsormr - One of Loki's children, a serpent that circles Midgard. brother to Hel and the Fenrir-wolf. Thor will kill the snake during Ragnarok. See Iormungand; World Serpent.

Miming - Miming is a minor Norse forest-god.

Mirmir - ("The Murmuring") Mirmir is Bolthorn's son, Betsla's brother, and Odin's mother's brother. Mimer is a proto-etin (Giant) and the wisest of all beings, holder of all knowledge that has ever existed, who lived by Mimir's Well. Mimir could even foretell the future. At the end of the war with the Vanirs, Mirmir was sent as a hostage. The Vanirs chopped off his head and sent it back to Asgard. Odin retrieved the head and sang immensely powerful magical charms over it to preserve the life within. This was later called the Head of Mimir and it stays by a well in Jotunheim. This well later came to be known famously as the Well of Mimir. It is said that Heimdall safe-keeps his Gjallarhorn by this well. Odin himself traveled to Jotunheim to consult Mimir about several issues.

Mirmir is God of all the waters beneath the earth.

Mimir's Well - The source wisdom and intelligence; this well lies under the root of Yggdrasill in Asgard and is guarded by the head of Mimir. Odin came there and asked for a single drink from the spring, but he did not get it until he had given one of his eyes to Mímir.

Mimisbrunnur - Mimir's Well.

Minni - (ON: minni; OE mynd) The faculty of "memory"; the images stored in the deep mind from aeons past. The reflective part of the soul, the memory--personal and transpersonal. Also myne.

Mirkwood - A magic, dark forest from which three Valkrye maidens flew in search of husbands.

Mist - ("The Mist" or "The Fog") The Valkyrie Mist is one of Odin's two servants. Her major task is to serve the Einheriars in Valhalla of the four kinds of mead that comes from the goat Heidrun. Mist and Hrist bring an ale horn to Odin.

Mistblindi - ("Fog Blind") Mistblindi is father to the Ocean Giant Aegir and the Fire Giant Logi.

Mistletoe - 1) The mistletoe was sacred to the Druids and to the Norse. It was considered to be the great healer and has both male and female qualities. It was so well regarded by the Norse (because it was sacred to Freyja) that they refused to fight in the vicinity of Mistletoe.The custom of hanging Mistletoe in the house to promote peace comes from this. Generally regarded today as a symbol of love and purity. 2) By an oversight, Mistletoe was the only entity in the universe that did not swear to not cause harm to Balder. Loki used magic to make an arrow of Mistletoe, and tricked Balder's blind brother, Hodur, to shoot at Balder. The arrow struck and killed Balder.

Mjollnir - ("Smasher" or "Crusher") In Norse myth, the hammer that belongs to the mighty god Thor. Mjollnir was made for him by the dwarfs Brok and Eitri, who made many magical objects for the gods. Every time Thor threw the hammer lightning flashed, after which it returned to his right hand, on which he wore an iron glove. Mjollnir was greatly feared by the frost giants, the enemies of the gods, for Thor had dispatched a large number of them. It hits everything that Thor aims at and always comes back to his hand. Thor can reduce its size to hang it around his neck. Thor's Hammer is one of the most popular pieces of jewelry of the Viking era.

After Thor's death, his sons Magni and Modi will inherit the hammer.

Old Norse: Mjöllnir. The Russian word for lightning is 'molniya'.

Modgud - A grim, skeletal maiden who guards the Gjoll bridge. Gjoll is the bridge which leads to Helheim. She extracts a toll of blood before permitting one to cross. She demands everyone who passes tell their name and family. Hermod encountered Modgud when he journeyed to Helheim to seek the release of his brother Balder.

Modi - ("The Brave) Son of Thorr and Jarnsaxa. He is very brave. He will survive the Ragnarok with his brother, Magni.

Modin - ("Tired") A horse belonging to the Dwarf Dvalin.

Modsognir, Durin - Dwarves; the Dwarves were originally maggots but given intelligence by Gods.

Modvitnir - ("Mead-Wolf") A Dwarf.

Morkkurkalve - A golum, or Mud-Giant, created by the Jotuns to help Rungnir in his fight with Thor. He is shaped from mud, with a mare's heart. He is nine miles tall and his chest is three miles wide. He collapsed during the battle.

Mundilfari - ("Travels like a pendulum") In Norse myth, there was once a giant named Mundilfari who was married to Glaur. Their children were so beautiful that he named his son Mani (moon) and his daughter Sol (sun). The gods were angered at such daring. They took both children and placed them in the sky to guide the chariots of the sun and the moon - the celestial bodies created by the gods from the sparks from Muspell.

Munin - ("Memory") One of Odin's two black ravens. Everyday the ravens fly out all over the world, returning and reports what they have seen.

Muspell - In Norse mythology, Muspell or Muspellheim ("home of desolation") is a flaming, torrid region, the land of fire far to the south. It is opposed to Niflheim and whose animating beams made the ice in Niflheim melt and created the first living beings. The celestial bodies were made from its sparks which flew out into space. Muspell is ruled by the fire giant Surt, whose wife is Sinmore.

At the final battle of Ragnarok Surt will set the World Tree on fire and kill the unarmed god Freyr.

Old Norse: Múspell

Muspell, Muspellheim, Muspellheimr - Land of fire. The most mysterious realm of all, is made up of nothing but raging infernos. The lord of Muspellheim, Surt, sits at the very end of that land with a sword in his hand, waiting for the arrival of Ragnarok. It is said that this sword shines brighter than the sun. Sinmora is Surt's wife. Fire giants dwell in that land and all those who are not native to Muspellheim will get torched to death the moment they step foot on it.

Muspell, The sons of - Presumably, these are the fire giants themselves. In the sagas, it is mentioned that during Ragnarok, the "sons of Muspell" will cross the rainbow bridge of the gods, Bifrost. Bifrost is able to withstand the might of the undead and the frost giants when they travel on it towards Asgard, but this same bridge will be shattered to pieces after the last fire giant has crossed it. "Muspell" either means Surt or the fiery realm Muspellheim itself. In other words, "sons of Muspell" refers to the troops of Surt or the inhabitants of Muspellheim.

Myrkstafr - ON: The negative aspects of a given runestave. "Murk-stave".

N

Naglfar - ("The ship with rivets") Naglfar is a ship that the Death Goddess Hel created using dead humans' fingernails. When people trim their fingernails, the construction of Nagelfar is delayed. It will be launched at Ragnarok from Jotunheim loaded with armed Jotuns, ready to fight the Gods.

Nain - A Dwarf.

Nanna, Anna, Inanna - ("The Moon") Asa-Goddess, wife of Balder, mother of Forseti. She dies of heartache after Balder's death and is burned with him on his funeral boat, along with his chopped up horse and a misfortunate Dwarf who Thor kicked in at the last minute.

Nar - A Dwarf.

Narfi - Narfi is son of Loki and Sigyn. Narfi was killed by his brother Vali, who was turned into a wolf. When Loki was punished, the Gods used Narfi's intestines to bind him onto rocks under a poisonous snake which dripped its venom onto him.

Nastrond - Site of the hall of evildoers in Hel. The dragon Nidhogg knaws at corpses here.

Natt , Nott, Night - ("Night") Natt, a Night-Disir, is the daughter of Norvi. She has been married three times. With Nagifari, her first husband, she had a son, Aud. Her second husband was Annarr, father of her daughter Earth/Erda (Jőrd). With Delling ("Dawn"), her third husband, she had a son, Dag/Day. Natt is also the mother of Njord. Natt and Dag circle the world on their horses. Natt's horse is Hrimfaxi ("Frost Mane"). Dag's is Skinfaxi ("Shining Mane").

Nehallennia  - ("The Fruitful One") Great mother of sea and vegetation. Goddess of plenty, seafaring, fishing, fruitfulness. Her symbol is a cornucopia.

Nepur - Moon-God. He abducted king Ivaldi's sons, Bil & Hjuki, as they tried to take mead from their fathers well. He had to release them when Ivaldi caught him as he rode through the underworld.

Nerthus - Mother Earth Goddess, primal earth mother. She is the oldest Scandinavian Goddess whose name has come down to us. Some connect her with Frigga. Possibly an older version of Njord (as the opposite sex) or his sister/wife with whom he has Freyr and Freya. She was a fertility Goddess whose worship was cantered in Denmark. She lived in a grove on a sacred island. Once a year she travelled across the land in a wagon bringing a season of peace and plenty. When she tired, she returned to her island and was bathed in a lake by slaves who were later drowned.

Nibelunggold - A treasure that was first owned by the Dwarf Andvari, which was stolen by the Ćsirs. Andvari then spoke a curse over the magic ring Andvaranut. Hreidmar received Andvari's hoard and a cursed gold ring from Odin, as compensation for the death of his son, Otter, but he refused to share any with his other sons. Fáfnir and Regin killed their father, but then Fafnir would not share the gold with Regin. Fáfnir went to a cave on the Gnita Heath and, making a lair there, turned himself into a dragon to guard the gold. Many years later, Regin killed the Fafni dragon, with the aid of Sigurdr, and reclaimed the gold. Sigurdr killed Regin and abandoned the gold.

Nid, Nídh - An insult which is also a curse, calling upon the Landvaettir to drive out the miscreant. "Nidering" is the worst thing any northerner could be called. Egil Skallagrimsson set up a "nidhin-pole" to magically banish Erik Bloddaxe from Norway. It worked.

Nidavellir - The realm of the dwarfs. The surviving myths does not mention too much about this realm.

Nidering, Nídhingr, Nithling - ON Nithingr. A wretched coward; a vile wretch. The very worst insult one could say to another.

Nidfjoll - ("Dark Mountains") A hall, called Sindri, is found in this mountain range. It will be a refuge to those finding it at Ragnarok.

Nidhing Pole - ("Pole of insult"). ON: Nidstang. A pole with a horse's head or carving of the victim in an obscene posture, sued for serious insult and damaging curses.

Nidhogg, Nidhoggr - ("Bites in anger") In Norse myth, Nidhogg ("tearer of corpses") is a monstrous serpent or dragon that gnaws almost perpetually at the deepest root of the World Tree Yggdrasil in Helheim, threatening to destroy it. The squirrel Ratatosk acts as a messenger and sows discord between Nidhogg(who lives deep down in Helheim) and the eagle Hraesvelg(who lives perched on the highest roots of the world tree Yggdrasil). Nidhogg lies on Nastrond in Niflheim and eats corpses to sustain it self. It is not the only serpent whose task it is to destroy the World Tree; other serpents include Graback, Grafvolluth, Goin and Moin.

Nidi - A Dwarf.

Niflheim, Niflheimr - Niflheim ("house of mists") is the far northern region of icy fogs and mists, darkness and cold. It is situated on the lowest level of the universe. The realm of death, Helheim is part of the vast, cold region. Niflheim lies underneath the third root of Yggdrasil, close to the spring Hvergelmir ("roaring cauldron"). Also situated on this level is Nastrond, the Shore of Corpses, where the serpent Nidhogg eats corpses and gnaws on the roots of Yggdrasil.

After Ragnarok, there will be a hall here for the punishment of murderers, oath breakers, and philanderers.

Like Muspellheim, this is the only other realm that already existed even before the first god or giant was created. Niflheim, however, is covered with icy mists and fogs. This grim realm is bathed in darkness and abomination.
Within Niflheim lies a smaller realm called Helheim. This is the realm of the dead. Those who did not die gloriously in battle (such as old age, sickness etc.) will all reach Helheim upon death.

At the entrance of Helheim is the cave Gnipahellir. In it lives the most horrible of hounds, Garm. Further in Helheim is the roaring spring Hvergelmir and with this spring as the source, the eleven rivers collectively known as the Elivagar flow. The names of the eleven rivers are Svol, Gunnthra, Fiorm, Fimbulthul, Slidr, Hrid, Sylg, Ylg, Vid, Leiptr, and Gioll.

Nastrond, the shore of corpses, also lies within this nether region. The dragon Nidhogg dwells here, chewing both corpses and the third root of Yggdrasil.  In the furthest and most desolated end of Helheim lies the hall Eljudnir. The mistress of this hall, the ruler of both Niflheim and Helheim, is Hel herself.

Nine Worlds of Norse Mythology - The world-tree Yggdrasil contains the whole of creation, embraced by nine worlds.

1) Asgardhr -- world of the Ćsir, the land of the Gods.

2) Vanaheim -- world of the Vanir.

3) Midgardh -- world of men.

4) Jotunheim -- world of the Giants.

5) Svartalfaheim -- world of the Dwarves.

6) Alfheim or Lysalfheim -- world of the Light-Elves.

7) Muspellheim -- world of fire, a bright, flaming, hot world in the southern region, home of the Fire-Giants.

8) Niflheim -- world of ice and terrible cold, in the far north, home of the Frost-Giants, and

9) Helheim or Niflhel--world of the dead.

Some versions of the mythology refer to Eight Worlds, combining Niflheim and Helheim, or Seven Worlds, in which Lysalfheim is the home of Freyr and Light Elves and is not considered a "world". The Light-Elves also have a hall, Gimle, which is found in Andlang, one of the heavens above Asgardr. The other heaven above Asagardr is Vidblain.

Niorun - Niorun is the Goddess of dreams. The Dwarves call nighttime Dream-Niorun.

Njörd, Niord - ("Stiller-of-storms") The Norse god of winds, sea and fire. He is the son of Nott (Night). He brings good fortune at sea and in the hunt. Njord lives in Noatun ("Boat Town").  Somewhere in the myths, he married the Giantess Skadi who picked him for his beautiful feet, by mistake, thinking he was Balder, but the two divorced after they could not agree on where they should live (Njord prefers to stay in Noatun but Skadi insisted on staying at Thrymheim). His children are Freya and Freyr, whom he fathered on his own sister. He had eight more daughters.

Originally, Njord was one of the Vanir but when they made peace with the Aesir, he and his children were given to them as hostages. The Aesir appointed both Njord and Freyr as high priests to preside over sacrifices. Freya was consecrated as sacrificial priestess. She taught the Aesir witchcraft, an art that was common knowledge among the Vanir.

Old Norse: Njöror

Noatun - ("Ship Yard" or "Boat Town") Hall of the god Njörd.

Nordri, Sudri, Austri and Westri - These are the four dwarfs at each corner of the sky, holding it up above everything. The names Nordri, Sudri, Austri and Westri  mean North, South, East and West respectively. Odin set them up there on that day when he created new realms and beings from Ymir's body parts.

Nordri - ("North") The Dwarf Nordri was put in the sky's north corner by Odin, Vili and Ve. The sky is made out of the Giant Ymir's head.

Norfe - The Giant Norfe is the father of the disir Night. He was the first who built anything in Jotunheim.

Nori - A Dwarf.

Norn - Usually taken as the singular of the Nornir, the three Disir Fates of Norse myth known as Urdhr, Verdhandi, and Skuld, and representing the past, present and future.The embodiments of řrlög and causality. There are three Norns, Urdhr (that-which-is), Verdhandi (that-which-is-becoming), and Skuld (that-which-should-be) who shape the turnings of Wyrd through the worlds. Each person is also said to have his or her own lesser norns who bring his or her personal weird. These may be related to or identical with the Disir and Valkyrja, who also embody personal řrlög. Also known by the Saxons as the Weird or Wyrd Sisters. Urdhr is said to be an old crone, Verdandi is said to be a woman while Skuld is a very young lady.

Nothing lasts forever, and even the mighty Yggdrasil is subject to decay. The Norns try to stop this process, or at least slow it down, by pouring mud and water from the Well of Fate over its branches. This magical liquid stops the rotting process for the time being.

Nott - In Norse myth, Nott is the personification of night, and the daughter of Narvi. Nott was married three times and with each husband she had one child. Her first husband was Naglfari, and their son was Aud. Her second husband was Annar, father of Earth. Her third husband was Delling, the personification of twilight, father of Dagur (Day). She and her son were given horse-drawn chariots by the gods and were placed in the sky to round the world every two half-days. Notts chariot is pulled by the horse Hrimfaxi ("frost-maned") which covers the earth with dew early in the morning.

Nyi - A Dwarf.

Nykur - A Kelpie, a malignant water-elemental, usually in the form of a horse.

Nyr - A Dwarf.

Nyrad - A Dwarf.

O

Od - Od has two beautiful daughters, Hnoss and Gersimi, with the beautiful fertility goddess Freya. This mysterious husband of Freyrja disappeared, and she mourned for him with tears of gold. No reason is ever given for his disappearance other than that he was a "traveller". The name Od may be another form of the name Odin.

Odhrćrir, Odhroerir - ("Exciter or Stirrer of Inspiration") ON. This is both a name of the Mead of Poetry and its container, which Odin stole from Suttung's daughter The Mead was actually stored in three cauldrons: Odhroerir, Son, and Bodhn.

Odin, Odhinn, Woden - The chief divinity of the Norse pantheon, the foremost of the Aesir. Odin is a son of Bor and Bestla. He is called Alfadir, Allfather, for he is indeed father of the gods. With Frigg he is the father of Balder, Hod, and Hermod. He fathered Thor on the goddess Jord; and the giantess Grid became the mother of Vidar. His third wife was Rinda, who bore Vali. Giantess Gunnlod gave birth to Bragi after Odin spent three nights with her and stole the Mead of Poetry. He was also said to have married Saga, and to have visited her daily in the crystal hall of Sokvabek. His other consorts were Skadi, and the nine undines (the wave-daughters of Aegir and Ran) who bore Odin Heimdall.

Odin is a god of war and death, but also the god of poetry and wisdom. God of storm, rain and harvest. A shape-shifter, he makes men mad or possessed with a blind raging fury. He produces the battle panic called "battle-fetter". Three different frenzies or madness are his gifts to humankind: the warrior in battle, the seer in trance, and the poet in creativity. Subtle, wily, mysterious and dangerous, he often ignores pacts made in honor with humans. He hung for nine days, pierced by his own spear, on the world tree. Here he learned nine powerful songs, and eighteen runes. Odin can make the dead speak to question the wisest amongst them. His hall in Asgard is Valaskjalf ("shelf of the slain") where his throne Hlidskjalf is located. From this throne he observes all that happens in the nine worlds. The tidings are brought to him by his two raven Huginn and Muninn. He also resides in Valhalla, where the slain warriors are taken. The ancient legends tell of how Odin would often wander into Midgard to make kings out of heroes, in the unmistakable peasant disguise of a bearded, one-eyed old man with a torn hat and shabby robes. Odin was not an all-perfect god, however. He is the most notorious of all Norse gods for his lust for females, especially giantesses. When Odin created the second race of humans, he gave them life and soul.

Odin's attributes are the spear Gungnir, which never misses its target, the ring Draupnir, from which every ninth night eight new rings appear, and his eight-footed steed Sleipnir. He is accompanied by the wolves Freki and Geri, to whom he gives his food for he himself consumes nothing but wine. Odin has only one eye, which blazes like the sun. In the very early days, Odin sacrificed his left eye and placed it in Mimir's well. Mimir then allowed him a sip of the magical water which granted him immense wisdom. On the day of the final battle, Odin will be killed by the wolf Fenrir.

Feared by ordinary people and worshiped only by princes, poets, the berzerkers, and sorcerers. Unpredictable when invoked. "I call myself Grim and Ganglari, Herian, Hialmberi, Thekk, Third, Thunn, Unn, Helblindi, High, Sann, Svipal, Sanngetal, Herteit, Hnikar, Bileyg, Baleyg, Bolverk, Fiolnir, Grimnir, Glapsvinn, Fiolsvinn, Sidhott, Sidskegg, Sigfather, Hnikud, All-father, Atrid, Farmatyr, Oski ("God of Wishes"), Omi, Just-as-high, Blindi, Gondlir, Harbard, Svidur, Svidrir, Ialk, Kialar, Vidur, Thror, Ygg, Thund, Vakr, Skilfing, Vafud, Hropta-Tyr, Gaut, Veratyr." Other names include Tveggi and Gagnrath.

He is also called Othinn, Wodan and Wotan. Some of the aliases he uses to travel icognito among mortals are Vak and Valtam. Wednesday is named after him (Wodan).

Old Norse: Odínn

Odin, Vili, Ve - The three-fold form of Odin as warrior, shaman and wanderer. Sometimes Vili and Ve are referred to as Odin's "brothers". Odin (spirit), Vili (will) and Ve (holy) were the sons of Börr (who was son of the Giant Buri) and his wife Bestla, a Giantess (who was daughter of Bolthorn).

Odrorer - See Odhrćrir, Odhroerir.

Oin - A Dwarf.

Okolnir - A land of warmth created after Ragnarok. A refuge to those finding it at Ragnarok. Site of the hall of Brimnir.

Olrun - A Valkyrie.

Olvalde - ("Emperor of the Ale") The father of Tjatsi, Gang and Ide. He lives with Tjatsi in Trymheim. When he died the brothers shared his beer.

Olvaldi - Father of the giant Thiazi and grandfather of Skadi. Nothing else is known about him.

Onar - A Dwarf.

Orchil - Orchil, the Saxon goddess who is under the brown earth, in a vast cavern, where she weaves at two looms. With one hand she weaves life upward through the grass; with the other she weaves death downward through the mould; and the sound of the weaving is Eternity, and the name of it in the Green World is Time. And, through all, Orchil weaves the weft of Eternal Beauty, that passeth not, though her soul is Change.

Ori - A Dwarf.

Orvandil - A Giant, a Star Hero, first husband of Sif and father of Ullr. (Sif later married Thorr).

Oski, Óski - ("Fulfiller of Desire") A by-name of Odin.

Ostara - Saxon lunar goddess. See Eostre.

Othr - One of the divine lovers of the Goddess Freya.

Otter - Otter is Hreidmar's son and brother to Fafnir and Regin. He could turn himself into an otter. When he was killed by the Ćsir, his father demanded the Nibelunggold as blood-payment. It was given to him, but cursed.

Outdweller - Inhabitant of the Utangardhs; uncanny wight.

P

Phol - Saxon god of male fertility (aspect of Balder).

Primestave - Wooden almanac with day, month, lunar and solar rotation and holy days engraved with runic symbols. Also called a "Cog Alamac".

Q

R

Radsvinn - ("Swift in Counsel") A Dwarf.

Ragnarok - Ragnarok ("Doom of the Gods"), also called Gotterdammerung, means the end of the cosmos in Norse mythology. It will be preceded by Fimbulvetr, the winter of winters. Three such winters will follow each other with no summers in between. Conflicts and feuds will break out, even between families, and all morality will disappear. This is the beginning of the end.

The wolf Skoll will finally devour the sun, and his brother Hati will eat the moon, plunging the earth [into] darkness. The stars will vanish from the sky. The cock Fjalar will crow to the giants and the golden cock Gullinkambi will crow to the gods. A third cock will raise the dead.

The earth will shudder with earthquakes, and every bond and fetter will burst, freeing the terrible wolf Fenrir. The sea will rear up because Jormungand, the Midgard Serpent, is twisting and writhing in fury as he makes his way toward the land. With every breath, Jormungand will stain the soil and the sky with his poison. The waves caused by the serpent's emerging will set free the ship Naglfar, and with the giant Hymir as their commander, the giants will sail towards the battlefield. From the realm of the dead a second ship will set sail, and this ship carries the inhabitants of hell, with Loki as their helmsman. The fire giants, led by the giant Surt, will leave Muspell in the south to join against the gods. Surt, carrying a sword that blazes like the sun itself, will scorch the earth.

Meanwhile, Heimdall will sound his horn, calling the sons of Odin and the heroes to the battlefield. From all the corners of the world, gods, giants, dwarves, demons and elves will ride towards the huge plain of Vigrid ("battle shaker") where the last battle will be fought. Odin will engage Fenrir in battle, and Thor will attack Jormungand. Thor will be victorious, but the serpent's poison will gradually kill the god of thunder. Surt will seek out the swordless Freyr, who will quickly succumb to the giant. The one-handed Tyr will fight the monstrous hound Garm and they will kill each other. Loki and Heimdall, age-old enemies, will meet for a final time, and neither will survive their encounter. The fight between Odin and Fenrir will rage for a long time, but finally Fenrir will seize Odin and swallow him. Odin's son Vidar will at once leap towards the wolf and kill him with his bare hands, ripping the wolf's jaws apart.

Then Surt will fling fire in every direction. The nine worlds will burn, and friends and foes alike will perish. The earth will sink into the sea.

After the destruction, a new and idyllic world will arise from the sea and will be filled with abundant supplies. Some of the gods will survive, others will be reborn. Wickedness and misery will no longer exist and gods and men will live happily together. The descendants of Lif and Lifthrasir will inhabit this earth.

Ragnarök does not mean "Twilight of the Gods"; that phrase is the result of a famous mistranslation. "Ragnarökr" or "Ragnarřkr" means "doom of the powers" or "destruction of the powers" (where "powers" means "gods").

After Ragnarok - Earth will rise out of sea, and crops will grow. Vidar and Vali will be alive and will dwell at Idavoll. Modi ("Wrath") and Magni ("Might") will inherit Mjollnir. Baldr & Hod will return from Hel. Life & Leifthrasir, two human survivors of Ragnarok, will repopulate world.

Ragridr - A Valkyrie.

Ran - ("The Ravager") Vana-Goddess; Ran is the goddess of storms, and the wife of the sea god Aegir. She rules over the realm of the dead which is situated on the bottom of the ocean. She sinks ships and collects drowned sailors in her nets and takes them to her hall where she tenderly ministers them (drowned persons neither go to Valhalla nor to Helheim). With Aegir she is the mother of nine daughters (the billows), who wore white robes and veils.

Rana-neidda - A Lapp (Saami) Goddess. She brings spring renewal and grass for the reindeer

Randgnid - A Valkyrie.

Rándgrídr - ("Counsel of Peace" or "Shield of Peace") A Valkyrie who serves ale to the Einheriar in Valhalla.

Rani - The snout of a boar. See Svínfylking: Norse boar-cult warriors who fought in wedge-formation with two champions, 'the rani' (snout) to the fore.

Ratatosk [rat-ah-tosk[ - ("Teeth That Find") The squirrel which runs up and down the roots of the world tree Yggdrasil. On the branches of this fathomless tree exist the nine worlds. The giant eagle Hraesvelg is at the topmost branch, Nidhogg is at the bottom of one of the roots. Thus Ratatosk acts as a messenger between the both. Ratatosk twists what Nidhogg has to say to Hraesvelg and vice versa, thus sowing discord between the two.

Regin - Dwarf Regin is the son of Hreidmar and brother to Otter and Fafni. He killed his father, and later the dragon Fafnir, with the help of Sigurdr Fafnisbari and his sword Gram, to get the Nibelunggold.

Reginleif - ("Heritage of the Gods") A Valkyrie who serves ale to the Einheriar in Valhalla.

Reginnaglar - ON. pl. Sacred nails hammered into the main pillars of a wooden temple.

Rekk - A Dwarf.

Rig - ("God of Society's Order") A by-name of Heimdall.

Rime Giants - Frost Jotuns from the first era after the creation of the world.

Rimfaxi, Hrimfaxi - ("Frosty Mane") Natt's horse which runs over the sky every day and dribbles the morningdew in the grass.

Rimkalk - ("Crystal Cup") A cup used for drinking mead. Gerd gave Freyr's servant Skirnir a Rimkalk mead and the same was served to the Ćsirs in Aegir's hall.

Rind, Rinda - Rime-Giantess. Primal goddess of the frozen earth. One of the mistresses of Odin. She gave birth to Vali on the night Balder was killed. Vali, by destiny's decision, was born just to kill Balder's murderer, Hod.

Ringhornir - Ringhornir is Balder's funeral ship. When he was buried he and his wife, Nanna, who died of a broken heart, were put in the ship and it was set on fire and pushed out in the ocean.

Ris, Risi - Old Norse the word risi meant a true Giant of great size, capable of intermarrying with humans; they were usually beautiful and good. The jotnar, singular jötunn, had great strength and age. Etins were usually friendly with the Gods. The thursar, singular thurs, were particularly antagonistic, destructive, and stupid.

Rist, Hrist - ("Spear Thrower'') The Valkyrie Rist is one of Odin's two servants. Her task is to serve the men in Valhalla the never-ceasing four kinds of mead that comes from the goat Heidrun.

Rivers of the Nine Worlds: Sid, Vid, Sekin, Ekin, Svol, Gunnthro, Fiorm, Fimbulthul, Gipul, Gopul, Gomul, Geirvimul, Thyn, Vin, Tholl, Boll, Grad, Gunnthrain, Nyt, Not, Nonn, Hronn, Vina, Veg, Svinn, Thiodnuma.

Roskva - ("The Quick") Roskva is a human girl, but she lives in Bilskirnir with Thor and Sif. Tjalfi is her brother and Groa and Egil Skytten are her parents.

Róta - ("She Who Causes Turmoil") Gunnr and Róta, and the youngest norn, called Skuld, ride to choose who shall be slain and to govern the killings.

Rungne, Rungnir, Hrungnir - The strongest Giant in Jotunheim. His head is made of stone and so is also his pentagram-shaped heart. He is very boastful. Thor killed him in a fight.

Rym - ("Old and Powerless") The Storm Giant who controls the rudder on Naglfar, the ship that Hel, the Death Goddess, built using dead people's nails.

Saehriminir - ("The Sea Striped") Known as the cosmic boar. Every day without fail, Saehriminir is slaughtered and cooked by the Asgard chef Andhrimnir in his mystical cauldron Eldhrimnir. The Einherjar feast on the meat of this boar daily at the hall Valhalla. This boar is reborn every night. The cycle continues.

S

Sága - 1) ("Seeress") Daughter or consort of Odin, one of the Asynjor (female Ćsir). She was an attendant to Frigg. Some consider her just an aspect of Frigg. The sagas or songs of history are named for her. She resides by the stream of time and events. She lived in Sokvabek, a crystal hall, and drank daily from the river of time with Odin. Saga was once called Bil. She is invoked for recall and memory. The sagas or songs of history are named for her. At Ragnarok, she is the one who will see the flames from the elves territory. 2) The word saga "history" and "story". The fundamental meaning of saga is "a narrative". The sagas of the medieval Nordic world, principally preserved in manuscripts written in Iceland, are the written narratives of this civilization. Sagas most nearly approximate our historical novels - but are often leavened with myth and magic.

Sál - ON: the "shade", after-death image.

Salu - "Sun-kissed", i.e. health.

Sanngridr - A Valkyrie.

Saxnot - Saxon helper god.

Scatach - ("She who strikes fear") A Lapp (Saami) Goddess.

Sceaf - A child-god from the Norse culture. He came across the sea of Denmark in a boat with a sheaf (bundle) of corn beside him and founded a kingdom there. Other versions say that he landed on the island of Scani with a boat full of different weapons and was made king. In both cases, the story is similar to the story of Syld.

Seaboiler - A one-mile-deep kettle owned by the Giant Hymir. Since borrowed by Tyr and Thor, it has been in Aegir's posession, and used at his big beer fests.

Seater - Saxon deity of Saturday = Saturn.

Serpents: Goin and Moin (Grafvitnir's sons), Grafvitnir, Grabak and Grafvolluth, Ofnir and Svafnir - These are the seven other serpents besides Nidhogg which gnaw at the third root of Yggdrasil. There are numerous others whose names are unknown.

Sessrumnir - Freyja's hall in Asgard; her dwelling is called Folkvangar.

Siar - A Dwarf.

Sick Bed - Sick Bed is the Death Goddess Hel's bed. It stands in her dark castle Eljudnir in Nifilhel.

Sif - The golden-haired second wife of the god Thor, her golden hair is the most brilliant of all females. Sif has the gift of prophecy. Sif is a swan maiden and can assume that form. She signifies summer fertility and corn. Having been married once to Orvandil, she is one of the elder race of Gods. Ullr was her son from that union. She gave Thor two sons, Magni ("Might") and Modi ("Wrath") who survive Ragnarök.

The best know myth is when Loki the Trickster sneaked into Sif's bedroom and lopped off her hair. Furious, Thor threatened to smash him unless Loki managed to replace the hair. He went to a great cave, the home of the sons of Ivaldi, and told them the reason of his journey. He then asked the dwarfs to spin gold as fine as Sif's hair and imbue it with magic that it will grow on her head. The dwarfs agreed and made a long wave of fine golden strands, which Loki gave to Sif.

Sig - ON: Victory.

Sigmund - Son of Volsung, to whom the great sword Gram went, Sigmund being the only person who could draw it from the log into which Odin had thrust it. After Sigmund died, he bequeathed the sword to his as yet unborn son, Sigurd.

Sigrdrifa - ("Victory Blizzard") A Valkyrie, one of the Disir.

Sigrún - ("Victory Rune") - A Valkyrie, one of the Disir.

Sigtyr - ("God of Victory") A by-name of Odin.

Sigurd - Sigurd (Siegfried) was the greatest hero in Germanic legend, and central character of the Saga of the Volsungs. He was the foster-son of Regin, who sent him to recover a fabulous hoard of gold. Regin's father Hreidmar had first acquired this treasure, which once belonged to the dwarf Andvari. To get their hands on the gold Regin and his brother Fafnir had then killed Hreidmar, but Fafnir wanted the treasure for himself and turned into a dragon to guard it.

Regin wished to possess the treasure which his brother guarded, and to this end forged a great sword for Sigurd, but it broke the first time it was tested, and Sigurd had his father's sword reassembled and re-forged, and Gram stood every test. By cunningly stabbing the monster from underneath, Sigurd succeeded in slaying Fafnir, thus gaining both wealth and wisdom (by licking the blood of the slain dragon), since Fafnir was said to have understood the language of birds. When he realized that Regin intended to kill him for the gold, Sigurd slew him before carrying it away himself.

Sigurd then went to free the Valkyrie maiden Brunhilde, who lay in a magical sleep, cast there by Odin, for daring to rise above his wishes. But Brunhilde had sworn only to marry the man who could ride through the fire that surrounded her dwelling. Gunnar wanted her, but could not perform the feat, but Sigurd in Gunnar's shape did so. Thus Brunhilde agreed to marry Gunnar.

Sigyn, Siguna, Signy - ("The Faithful") Goddess wife of Loki, whose two sons are Vali and Narfi. When Loki is punished, she stays with him holding a bowl over his face to save him from the snake venom dripping onto him.

Sindri - 1) Elf-smith who worked in Asgard. Brokk was his brother. 2) A red-gold roofed hall which will appear after Ragnarok.

Sinmara - The earth-pale Giantess Sinmara watches the rooster Vidofner. Her magic-wand, Laevatein, which she keeps away from the Giants, is the only thing that can kill the rooster.

Sjöfn, Sjofna [Syof-nah] - ("Affection") Asa-Goddess of love, also known as Vjofn. One of the Asynjor (Ćsir Goddess). It was her duty to stop fights between married couples. The Sjofn gives love and sex to both men and women. She is the mistress of the human's passion and the only one who can arrage for dissallowed couples to be with each other.

Skadi - ("Harm") One of the more popular and beautiful giantess, called the 'snow-shoe goddess', and the embodiment of winter. Scandinavia is named after her--the "land of Skadi".  She is the wife of the god Njord. When her father Thiazi was slain by the gods, Skadi wanted to take revenge. The gods thought it wiser to reconciliate and offered her a marriage with one of them. She was free to marry any god, but while she made her choice she was only allowed to see the feet of the potential candidates. She noticed a very elegant pair and, convinced that their owner was the fair god Balder, she choose them. Unfortunately for her, those feet belonged to the older god Njord. Also Loki tied one end of a rope to his testicles and and the other end of it to a goat's beard. Both tried to pull away from each other. Loki moaned and the goat gruffed. Skadi did laugh at this. To appease her further, Thor threw one of Thiazi's eyes into the skies so that it will always be there, looking down at her.

The marriage between Njord and Skadi was not a happy one. She wanted to live where her father had lived, in Thrymheim in the mountains, and Njord wanted to live in Noatun, his palace by the sea. So they agreed to spend the first nine days in the mountains and the following nine days by the sea. This arrangement did not work out very well, and they separated. Eventually, Skadi left Njord for the god Ull. The wolf and poisonous snake are sacred to her.

Old Norse: Skaoi

Skafinn - A Dwarf.

Skald - ON: A poet who composes highly formal, originally magical, verse.

Skamold - A Valkyrie.

Skeggjöld, Skegghol - ("Wearing a War Axe") A Valkyrie who serves ale to the Einheriar in Valhalla.

Skidbladnir [skid-blad-near} - ("Covered with pieces of wood") The best of ships, constructed with great ingenuity for Freyr by the sons of Dwarf Ivaldi. It can sail in both air and water. It is big enough to hold all of the Ćsir, yet it can fold up like a cloth to go in one's pocket.

Skinfaxi - Horse of Dagur, the god of daytime. Skinfaxi's brilliant mane lits up the sky and the earth.

Skirnir - ("The Beaming One") Freyr's servant. Skirnir rides to Jotunheim to get the Giantess Gerd for him. He gets Freyr's horse, Blodighofi, as a reward. He was also sent to the world of black-elves and Dwarves to have Gleipnir made.

Skirpir - A Dwarf.

Skögul - ("Battle") A Valkyrie who serves ale to the Einheriar in Valhalla. Göndul, Hildr and Skögul, are the most noble Valkyries in Asgard. Their task is to choose the men permitted to go to Valhalla. She is often associated with war magic.

Skoll and Hati - The two hungry wolves who chase after the sun and the moon. Hati goes after the moon while Skoll chases the sun. At Ragnarok, these two wolves will succeed. Both the sun and the moon will be swallowed and the worlds will fall into total darkness.

Skoll - One of the two fierce wolves who pursued the sun and moon. The other is Hati. Their object was to swallow them so that the world might again be enveloped in its primeval darkness. Skoll is the wolf that chases the lightdisir Sun and her two horses. Hati runs in front of her. When nature dies before Ragnarok, Skoll finally gets to eat Sun. Skoll and Hati are sons of the Giantess of Iron Wood and Fenrir-wolf.

Skrymir - ("Big Boy") Utgard-Loki in huge Giant-form. Thor and his companions slept in his glove.

Skuld - ("She Who Is Becoming" or "That which shall be") One of the Great Norns. Gunnr and Róta and the youngest Norn, called Skuld, are Valkyries, who ride to choose who shall be slain and to govern the killings. With the other Fates, Skuld sits at the Urdawell spinning threads about the human's future. Skuld comes from the verb skulu, meaning "shall". In Old Norse this has connotations of duty and obligation, but in the most archaic levels when the term first arose, it merely indicated that which should come to pass, given past circumstances. The other Norns are Urdhr and Verdhandi.

Sleipnir - The eight-legged horse who conveyed Odin between the realms of spirit and matter and was symbolic of Time. He is faster and cleverer than all the horses in the world. This beast belongs to Odin, although Odin himself lends it to Hermod at times. According to Norse mythology, the wall that enclosed Asgard was destroyed during a war between the Vanir and the Aesir, leaving the gods vulnerable to an attack by the giants.

One day, an itinerant stonemason named Blast came to Asgard and offered to rebuild the wall if the goddess Freya would consent to be his wife. He asked for the sun and the moon as well. The gods wanted the wall rebuilt but the terms stated by the mason were outrageous. However, the god Loki proposed a way of outwitting the mason and getting at least part of the wall rebuilt for nothing. The gods agreed to the payment asked by the mason, but only if the work was completed within six months. The mason insisted that he be allowed to use his stallion, Svadilfari, in rebuilding the wall.

The work proceeded much more rapidly than the gods had anticipated and they began to worry that the mason might have to be paid after all. The god Odin threatened to kill Loki if the wall was completed within the allotted time. Loki saw that the mason's horse was doing the heavy hauling and he devised a plan to deprive the mason of the help of his horse. Taking the form of a young mare, Loki lured the stallion into a thicket and made sure that he remained there until the next day. When Svadilfari returned to his master it was too late to complete the work. The mason became so angry that he revealed his true form, that of a rock giant. The god Thor dispatched the giant with a mighty blow of his hammer, Mjollnir.

Months later, Loki returned to Asgard. He brought with him a gray colt with eight legs, the foal of Loki the mare and Svadilfari the stallion. He gave it to Odin, saying that its name was Sleipnir. The colt could travel over land and sea and through the air.

Slidrugtanni - One of the two boars that drags the fertility God Freyr's wagon. The other boar is Gullinbursti, who with his golden bristle, is able to lit up the darkest night.

Snotra - ("Wise") A wise and gentle goddess of self-discipline, virtue and wisdom and good manners. The goddess of virtue and master of all knowledge. She knew the value of self-discipline.

Sokvabekk - ("Sunken-bench" or "Deep Stream") The home of Saga, the daughter of Odin. It was a crystal hall is Asgard.

Sol - The goddess of the sun. In one of those earliest days of life, there existed a giant called Mundilfari who married the giantess Glaur. They had two children who were so beautiful that they gave the children the names of Mani(moon) and Sol(sun). This act, considered blasphemous during those days, angered the gods who away the children and placed them in the skies. Mani and Sol ride in magical chariots across the skies; Mani's chariot pulls the moon along while Sol's chariot pulls the sun. She is married to Glen. Sol rides through the sky in a chariot pulled by the horses Alsvid ("all swift") and Arvak ("early riser"). Below their shoulder-blades the gods inserted iron-cold bellows to keep them cool.

She is chased during the daytime by the wolf Skoll who tries to devour her, just like her brother Mani is chased by the wolf Hati at night. It was believed that during solar eclipses the sun was in danger of being eaten by Skoll. Both wolves are the offspring of the giantess Hrodvitnir who lives in the Iron Wood. Eventually, the wolf will catch her. The goddess Svalin stands in front of the sun and shields the earth from the full intensity of its heat.

Son - Son is one of three bowls used by the Dwarves Fjalar and Galar while making Kvćsir's blood into the Mead of Poetry.

Sudri, Nordri, Austri and Westri - These are the four dwarfs at each corner of the sky, holding it up above everything. The names Nordri, Sudri, Austri and Westri mean North, South, East and West respectively. Odin set them up there on that day when he created new realms and beings from Ymir's body parts.

Sudri - ("South") The Dwarf Sudri was put in the sky's south corner by Odin, Vili and Ve. The sky is made out of the Giant Ymir's head.

Sunna - Daughter of the lightdisir, Sol and Glen. She will succeed her mother when Sol is consumed by the wolf Skoll.

Surt - ("Black") Lord of Muspellheim and king of the fire giants. It is said that Surt sits at Muspellheim, brandishing his gigantic blazing sword which shines even brighter than the sun. His hair is burning and boiling lava covers his body.  At Ragnarok, he will vanquish the whole cosmos with his flames. On that day, Surt will also kill Freyr. Surt's wife is Sinmora. Other than the fact that Surt is probably the most powerful of giants and even more powerful than the gods, nothing much is known about him.

Suttung - A cunning and forceful giant who guards the Mead of Poetry. Suttung, son of Gilling, got the Mead of Poetry from the Dwarves Fjalar and Galar when he was avenging the murder of his parents.

Svadilfari - ("He who picks the hard way) In Norse Mythology Svadilfari was the very strong stallion who helped Blast, a giant disguised as a stonemason, re-build the walls around Asgard, home of the Norse gods. While Svadilfari was helping the giant the stallion was lured away by Loki disguised as a mare. Several months later Loki gave birth to the eight-legged Sleipnir.

Svafa, Sváva - A Valkyrie.

Svalin - The goddess, or magical shield, who stands between the sun and the worlds below to shield the worlds from the full heat of the sun. Should she leave her post, the nine worlds(with the exception of Muspellheim), will all burst into flames.

Svanhvit - ("Swan-White") A Valkyrie.

Svartalfr, Svartalfar - ON: Dwarves, or Black Elves; also known as Dvergar. They were created by the gods out of the maggots that crawled through the flesh of the slain Ymir. They are very clever smiths, who forged Freyja's necklace, Thor's hammer, Sif's golden hair, Freyr's ship, and a hoard of other treasures for the golds. Their dwelling, Svartalfheim is beneath Midgardhr's surface, and it is there that they hoard their gold and jewels. The dwarves are earthly craft and power which give shape to and being to the inspiration of the Ljosalfar. It was Svartalfar who slew Kvasir and made the mead Odhroerir from his blood, transforming the raw material of wisdom into the craft and art of poetry from which any who could might drink. The Kobolds of the German mines may be classed as Svartalfar, as may all of the knocking spirits heard in subterranean works. The Svartalfar are said to be miserly and grudging, as well as more ill-tempered than the other races of Alfar. The word dwarf is etymologically connected to the idea of harming, oppressing or maliciously deceiving. Like the Dokkalfar (Dark Elves), they are skilled in magic, having learned the runes through the Dwarf Dvalin, and they know magical songs; unlike them, they almost never willingly teach their magical knowledge, though at times they may teach the art of smithing to a human. It is not uncommon for the Svartalfar to curse things that they are forced to make, such as the sword Tyrfing, or that are stolen from them, such as Advari's hoard. They are also said to steal human women and children, perhaps because there are few dwarvish women. Yet, although they are often untrustworthy, viciously vengeful, and malicious, they can be surprisingly loyal and friendly to humans who treat them well. The Svartalfar are said to be dark of complexion, ugly, perhaps twisted; they often appear as short but very powerful men with long gray beards.

Svartalfheim, Svartalfheimr - The realm of the dark elves. Like Nidavellir, the surviving Norse myths failed to make elaborated mention of this realm. Some people treat the dark elves and dwarfs as the same kind of beings and mention them interchangeably. The manner is which the dark elves behave is the same as the dwarfs: petty, scheming, cunning and have a strong lust for gold.

Sváva - Sváva is a Valkyrie that once fell in love with Helge, the son of a king. Their story is tragic. Helge was mortally wounded and the couple died together.

Sveid - A Valkyrie.

Svin - ON: Wild boar, formidable opposition.

Svínfylking - ON: Norse boar-cult warriors who fought in wedge-formation with two champions, the rani (snout) to the fore. Also the animal form taken in shapeshifting by these warriors.

Svipull - A Valkyrie.

Syn - ("Truth") Guardian Goddess of doorways and of love. An attendant of Frigga, Syn guarded the door of Frigga's palace, refusing to open it to those who were not allowed to come in. When she had once shut the door upon a would-be intruder no appeal would prevail to change her decision. She therefore presided over all tribunals and trials, and whenever a thing was to be vetoed the usual formula was to declare that Syn was against it.

T

Tanngnidr - A Valkyrie.

Tanngrisni ("Gap Tooth" or "The one with teeth spaces") and Tanngnost ("Tooth Grinder") - Thor's magic goats who pulled his chariot. The goats can be killed and eaten; however, by laying out their bones in place, they will be revived once more: bones, skin and flesh complete. On the other hand, if one of the bones is damaged while it is being eaten, then that particular goat which the bone belongs to will be affected physically when it is revived. This was the case of the human Thialfi. Thor slaughtered both goats in order to feed himself, Loki, Thialfi and Thialfi's family when he encountered them while journeying. He warned all to take care of the bones while eating. Thialfi forgot the warning and accidentally crushed one of the bone while eating. When the goats were both revived, one of them was limping. Thor claimed his compensation by taking Thialfi and his sister as his own servants.

The fishes' bath - A kenning for the sea.

Thekk - A Dwarf.

Thialfi & Roskva - They became Thor's bondservants after laming his goat by taking its bone-marrow.

Thiassi, Thjatsi, Thiazi [thyah-tzee] - ("Water") Thjatsi is a very rich and very stingy Giant. Thiazi is a son of the giant Olvaldi, Gang and Ide are his brothers. He is also the father of the giantess Skadi, wife of the Vanir god Njord. Thrymheim is Thiazi's mountain stronghold in Jotunheim, land of the giants. Like all giants, he is well versed in the use of magic.

With the aid of a magic eagle skin, he flew to Midgard where the gods Honir, Loki and Odin were cooking an ox. Still in the form of an eagle, he asked the gods for some of the meat. The gods agreed, but he ate so much that Loki became angry and impaled the eagle with a wooden staff. The eagle took flight with Loki still grasping the staff, unable to free himself. Thiazi released Loki on the condition that he would bring him the goddess Idun and her apples of youth.

Loki returned to Asgard and, a week later, went to the hall of Idun and told her that he had found a tree in Midgard that bore golden apples like hers. He offered to show her the tree and together they crossed the rainbow bridge Bifrost and entered Midgard. Idun carried her basket of apples as usual.

Still in the form of a giant eagle, Thiazi swooped down and carried Idun and her basket of golden apples to Thrymheim. Without the apples of youth the gods began to suffer the effects of old age. Loki soon fell under suspicion and admitted his role in the abduction of Idun. The gods then threatened him with death if he failed to return Idun and her apples to Asgard.

Borrowing a magic falcon skin from the goddess Freya, Loki assumed the form of a falcon, flew to Thrymheim, located Idun and transformed her into a nut. Then he took wing and began the long flight back to Asgard. When Thiazi returned to his stronghold he realized that Loki had taken Idun and the apples of youth. Taking the form of an eagle, Thiazi flew after Loki as fast as he could.

Thiazi was close behind Loki as the two birds neared the outer wall of Asgard. As soon as Loki flew over the wall, Odin ordered the gods to set fire to piles of wood and shavings. Thiazi's wings were badly burned, and he plunged to the ground where he was killed by the gods. Loki then returned Idun and her apples to their normal form. Odin transformed the giant's eyes into two stars.

Thicksole - Thicksole is Odin's son Vidar's thick and heavy iron-shoes. With these he manages to kill the Fenrir wolf in Ragnarok. The shoes are made of left-over leather pieces that shoemakers have thrown away.

Thjodrerir - A Dwarf mentioned in passing in one of the Runatál charms.

Thogn - A Valkyrie.

Thokk - Loki in disguise as a Giantess, who would not weep for Balder, thus preventing his return from Hel.

Thor, Thorr, Thunar, Donar - ("The Thunderer") Thor is the Norse god of thunder and lightening, agriculture and craftsmanship. He is a son of Odin and Jord, and one of the most powerful gods. He is married to Sif, a fertility goddess. His mistress is the giantess Jarnsaxa ("iron cutlass"), and their sons are Magni and Modi and his daughter is Thrud. Thor is helped by Thialfi, his servant and the messenger of the gods.

Thor was usually portrayed as a large, powerful man with a red beard and eyes of lighting. Thor is a size-shifter. He is terribly heavy and hot, and he cannot cross the Bifrost bridge. He must wade through the North Sea and come around the long way. Despite his ferocious appearance, he was very popular as the protector of both gods and humans against the forces of evil. He even surpassed his father Odin in popularity because, contrary to Odin, he did not require human sacrifices. In his temple at Uppsala he was shown standing with Odin at his right side. This temple was replaced by a Christian church in 1080.

The Norse believed that during a thunderstorm, Thor rode through the heavens on his chariot pulled by the goats Tanngrisni ("gap-tooth") and Tanngnost ("tooth grinder"). Lightning flashed whenever he threw his hammer Mjollnir. In battles, Thor throws Mjollnir ("Destroyer") often and the weapon will always return back to his hand. Thor had to wear his belt of strength called Megingjord ("Strength Increaser") and iron gloves to hold it. Megingjard doubles Thor’s already considerable strength. His hall is Bilskirnir, which is located in the region Thrudheim ("place of might"). His greatest enemy is Jormungand, the Midgard Serpent. At the day of Ragnarok, Thor will kill this serpent but will die from its poison. His sons will inherit his hammer after his death.

Donar is his Teutonic equivalent, while the Romans see in him their god Jupiter. Thursday is named after him.

Thorgerd, Thorgerdr - A Finnish Goddess later called a Troll. She used magic to call thunder, lightning and hail. Fertility goddess of Halogaland, north Norway.

Thorin, Throin, Thror - Names of Dwarves.

Thrall - On his first of three travels, the god Rig (who is actually Heimdall) came upon a farmstead. In the kitchen sat Ai and his wife Edda, Great Grandfather and Great Grandmother. They were friendly people and offered Rig shelter and food, although the latter was of poor quality. At night, Rig slept between the farmer and his wife, and nine months later Edda gave birth to a son. They named him Thrall ("serf").

Thrall grew up a strong, but very ugly man who was capable of doing hard labor. He married Thir ("drudge"), and they had twelve sons and nine daughters. Their children all received ordinary names and were raised to do the heavy work of farming. Thus the race of serfs was created. (See also: Karl and Jarl.)

Thrima - A Valkyrie.

Thrud, Thrudr - ("Power" or "Strength") Daughter of the mighty god Thor and Sif. Some of the gods had promised to marry her to the dwarf Alvis, if he would forge weapons for them. Thor, however, did not like this arrangement and felt that a dwarf made an inappropriate son-in-law. He therefore devised a test of knowledge to prevent this marriage. Alvis had to prove that his great wisdom made up for his small stature. Thor prolonged the test until sunrise and Alvis, still caught up in the test, was touched by the rays of the sun and was turned to stone.

Thrud - Thor's daughter with Sif. It is said in some sources that she is one of the Valkyries. The myths do not mention too much about her other than the fact that she was promised to the dwarf Alvis for marriage. Alvis was later turned into stone due to Thor's trickery.

Thrudgelmir - Ymir was the first giant. His son Thrudgelmir was the second. Thrudgelmir's own son Bergelmir is the third.

Thrudheim, Trudvang - ("Land of Strength") Thor's realm in Asgard and site of his hall Bilskirnir.

Thrym - Supposedly, Thrym is the king of the giants in Jotunheim, who is utterly hard-hearted and an avowed enemy of Thor.. He stole Thor's hammer Mjollnir and hid it eight leagues under the ground. He would return the hammer only if Freya becomes his bride. Freya refused and Thor had to disguise himself as Freya and went to look up Thrym. Thrym invited him to dinner and halfway through, he burst out and revealed his true identity. By then, Mjollnir was already in his hands (Thor got it back through trickery) and he slayed Thrym easily.

Thrymheim - Stronghold of the giant Thiazi which was passed on to his daughter Skadi.

Thunor - Saxon name for Thor.

Thurs - pl. thursar. ON: Thurs.. A "giant" characterized by great strength and age, e.g., the rime-thurses or "frost giants". Giants renowned for their witlessness and strength. They were antagonistic, destructive, and stupid.

Thurses pl. of Thurs. ON Thursar. The race of Giants.

Tiwaz - Saxon god of battle and victory, also known as Tyr, Tig, Teiwa.

Tjalfi - ("The Little Tell") A skillful runner, Tjalfi is not an Ćsir, but a human boy. He lives in Bilskirnir with Thor and Sif. Roskva is his sister, and Groa and Egil Skytten, his parents. Tjalfi personifies the arrow.

Trivaldi - ("Triple Mighty") A Giant with nine heads and three necks. He was killed by Thor, who split each his heads with an axe.

Troll - A malevolent Earth spirit, an ugly, mean-spirited being with magical powers.

Trym - ("The Noisy One") Trym is a Giant who once stole Mjollnir and held it hostage, demanding to have Freya as his bride. Thor fooled him, freed Freya, and got Mjollnir back.

Tvisto - Saxon ancestor god of northern Europeans.

Tyr, Tiu, Tiwaz, Tiw, Ziu - ("The One-Handed") The original Germanic god of war and the patron god of justice, the precursor of Odin and also the bravest among the Aesir. At the time of the Vikings, Tyr had to make way for Odin, who became the god of war himself. Tyr was by then regarded as Odin's son (or possibly of the giant Hymir). He is the boldest of the gods, who inspires courage and heroism in battle. Tyr is represented as a man with one hand, because his right hand was bitten off by the gigantic wolf Fenrir (in old-Norse, the wrist was called 'wolf-joint'). His attribute is a spear; the symbol of justice, as well as a weapon. He is the giver of victory in battle against the odds; he is never deceitful. He presides over law, legal contracts and assemblies of the people for judicial matters.

At the day of Ragnarok, Tyr will kill the hound Garm, the guardian of the hell, but will die from the wounds inflicted by the animal. In later mythology, "Tyr" became to mean "god". He is also known as Tîwaz, Tiw and Ziu.

Old Norse: Týr; Old English: Tiw

Tyrfing - ("Magic Sword") A magic sword forged by the Dwarves Durin and Dvalin. The sword killed most of the people who have owned it.

Ulfdalir - ("Wolf-Dales") The northernmost edge of the world, not far from one of the tunnels which lead down into the Underworld. The Gods never go here. Volund, Aurvandil and Slagfinnur, sons of Ivaldi, chose to become outlaws, and travelled to live here.

Úlfhednar - Warriors who took the shape of wolves in battle. See Berzerker.

U

Ullr, Uller, Ull, Wulder - In old Scandinavian myth, Ull ("glory") is the god of justice and dueling, as well as the patron god of hunting and agriculture. He excels in archery and in skiing and lives in his hall Ydalir ("yew dales"). He is regarded as the son of Sif and Orvandil, a star hero and the stepson of Thor. This puts Ullr among the Vanir. His name means "The Brilliant One" and he is associated with the Aurora Borealis. He has been identified as a very archaic God of death in Norway. At some time in history, Ullr was held to be just as important as Odin, and in winter he was considered to be the ruler in Asgard. When the giantess Skadi divorced Njord she married Ull.

Urdhr, Verdhandi, Skuld - The Great Norns who shape men's lives for better or worse

Urdhr, Urdu, Urd - ("Destiny") One of the Great Norns. Urdhr, the oldest Fate, sits at the Urdawell by Yggdrasil's root to the south, and spins life-threads with a silver distaff. Her threads involves the humans past. Urdhr (OE Wyrd) is simply the past participle of the verb verda, "to become". (OE wyrd is similarly formed from the verb weordhan). So Urdhr really means "that which was", "the past". Urdhr answered, "Ragnarok", when Odin when he asked what the future would be. She knew that his eye lay deep in Mimir's Well of Wisdom, so he already knew the answer to all his questions. But Odin laid all manner of treasures at her feet and begged for an answer. Then she chanted the fearsome, but somehow comforting lay, which tells of Ragnarok and the renewal of the world.

Urdawell, Urda Well, Urdhr's Well - The where the Gods have their court. The Norns use its water to keep Yggdrasil's branches from rotting.

Urdarbrunnur - Urda Well.

Utgard - In Norse mythology, the abode of the giants, situated in Jotunheim. Utgard-Loki had his castle here.

Utangardhr, Utangardhs - The ring of the elmental worlds ouside Midgardhr. Wild magical unordered space; outside of human society.

Utgard-Loki - A very powerful and mysterious giant. He is mentioned only in that one tale where Thor met him during his travels in Jotunheim. His arts of illusion were so great that the thunder god could not see through them and was tricked, fooled and defeated in every single instance. Utgard-Loki then led Thor and his journey's companions out of his castle and he vanished soon after.

V

Valaskialf [val-ah-skyalf] - ("Seat of the Slain") Odin's silver-roofed hall in Asgard, where is his high throne, Hlidskjalf; from it Odhinn can see into all the nine worlds.

Vafthruthnir - ("The one who knows answers'") A wise giant who was in a match of knowledge with Odin. Each will post several questions to the other. The one who fails to give the correct answer will have his head severed by the other. Odin's final question to Vafthruthnir was "What were the words that the Allfather said to his dead son?" Vafthruthnir could not answer that and Odin loped off his head.

Valfather - ("God of the Slain") By-name of Odin.

Valhalla - ("Hall of the Slain") Valhalla is one of Odin's halls in Asgard, where those who have fallen in battle, the Einherjar, go after death. (The other great hall is Vingolf.) It has five hundred and forty doors. Behind each door is a room for 800 warriors. The hall is roofed rafters of huge shining spear shafts and tiles of golden shields. A wolf guards the western door and an eagle hovers over it. It is here that the Valkyries, Odin's messengers and spirits of war, bring half of the heroes that died on the battle fields (the rest go to Freya's hall Folkvang). These heroes, the Einherjar, are prepared in Valhalla for the oncoming battle of Ragnarok Here the warriors gather to prepare for the final battle and the end of the world, Ragnarok. Each day Odin's cook boils the flesh of a boar in a great kettle The boar's flesh suffices for all the warriors. The boar is resurrected each evening to be cooked again the next morning. The warriors spend their days fighting and killing each other, to be revived at night for feasting and drinking four different kinds of mead and ale.

Váli - 1) In some sources, the twin brother of Vidar. In other sources, he is the youngest of Odin's sons, by the Giantess Rind, and was born for the express purpose of avenging Balder's death since the Gods could not kill one of their own. When he was only one night old, he killed Hodur. He is bold in battles, and an excellent arcber. He will be one of the seven Ćsir to survive the Ragnarok.

2) Vali was one of Loki's sons. The gods transformed him into a wolf to tear out the organs of his own brother Narvi; both Vali and Narvi are Loki's sons and through this way of son killing son, the gods are punishing Loki for all his crimes from past to present.

3) A Dwarf.

Valkyries - The Valkyries are Odin's handmaidens. These are beautiful young women who wear armor and are armed with spears. They ride on winged horses to the battlefield. Here, they will watch the battle while it is going on and scout for the bravest warriors who are killed while in combat. They will then bring the souls of these dead warriors to Asgard. Half of these souls will be given to Freya while the other half is given to Odin. The souls which are given to Odin will become the Einherjar. The Einherjar are the "foot soldiers" of the gods. Lead by Freya, they are sometimes referred to as "shield-maidens" or "corpse-goddesses", they have raven and swan forms.

The Valkyries are also Odin's messengers and when they ride forth on their errands; their armor causes the strange flickering light that is called "Aurora Borealis" (Northern Lights).

The names of the Valkyries are mentioned throughout the sagas here and there, but nothing much is known about each indivivual Valkyrie other than the one called Brunhilde. This Valkyrie fell in love with the greatest of mortal heroes, Sigurd. The tale is a long and twisting one, however. The names of the Valkyries are:

· Brunhilde

· Sigrdrifa

· Sigrun

· Svava

· Kara

· Hrist

· Mist

· Skeggjold

· Skogul

· Hild

· Pruor

· Hlokk

· Herfjotur

· Goll

· Geirahod

· Randgrid

· Rathgrid

· Reginleif

· Gunnr

· Rota

· Skuld

· Thrud

· Gondul

· Friagabi

· Gudr

· Gunn

Yet More Gods

Vikings for all occasions, no god too thin!

Manaraefan Herred